The health effects of medical waste on humans and the environment

Represents the general waste about 80% of the total waste left behind by the activities of health care.The remaining waste, or 20% of the total waste, hazardous substances can be infectious, toxic or radioactive.Is, each year, giving the nearly 16 billion injection in all parts of the world, but it does not get rid of all needles and syringes after use in appropriate ways.Contain health-care waste on the micro-organisms may be harmful and can injury patients treated in hospitals and health care providers and the public.Contribute to health-care activities to protect and restore health and save lives. But what about the waste products that can be side effects that those activities?The general waste, such as household waste, about 80% of the total waste left behind by the activities of health care. The remaining waste, or 20% of the total waste, hazardous substances can be infectious, toxic or radioactive.Types of wasteIncluding waste and by-products a variety of materials, as shown in the following list (percentages are approximate values):• infectious waste: the waste contaminated with blood and its derivatives, and farms, and stocks of infectious agents, and waste resulting from the patients in isolation wards, and put samples of diagnosis that contain blood and body fluids, and laboratory animals carrying the infection, and contaminated materials (swabs and Alasaib) and equipment ( such as disposable medical supplies).• Anatomical waste: parts of the body which can be identified and the bodies of infected animals;• sharps waste: syringes, needles, Scalpels and blades and other disposable;• chemicals: mercury, solvents and disinfectants, for example.• Pharmaceuticals: drugs that have expired and unused medicines and medicines contaminated;, vaccines and serums
;• Alinvaayat toxic genes: a very serious waste or mutagenic or teratogenic 1 or carcinogenic, such as cytotoxic drugs used to treat cancer, Mstqlebattha.• radioactive waste, such as glassware contaminated with radioactive diagnostic material or materials used in radiation therapy
.• waste, heavy metals, such as broken equipment from the mercury devices for measuring temperature.The infectious waste and waste anatomical Taken together, the majority of hazardous waste, or about 15% of waste from health care activities. The sharps waste about 1% of the total waste, but the main source of disease in the absence of appropriate management methods. The chemicals and pharmaceuticals to about 3% of waste from health care activities, while a toxic waste of the genes and radioactive particles and heavy metals about 1% of total health-care waste.

 
The main sources of health-care waste:• hospitals and other health care institutions 
• Laboratories and research centers 
• morgues and autopsy centers 
• laboratories that conduct research and tests on animals 
• blood banks and blood collection facilities 
• The role of caring for the elderlyAnd exports high-income countries, on average, about 0.5 kg of hazardous waste per day per hospital bed; issued while low-income countries, on average, 0.2 kilograms of such waste per day per hospital bed. However, it is not, in most cases, the classification of health-care waste as hazardous or non-hazardous waste in low-income countries, which greatly increases the real quantity of hazardous wastes.Health effectsContain health-care waste on the micro-organisms may be harmful and can carry the infection for patients who are treated at hospitals and health care providers and the public. Other potential risks include the spread of micro-organisms resistant to drugs in the environment from health care institutions.They can cause waste and side products are also in the incidence of injuries, such as the following:• burns caused by radiation• injuries caused by sharps waste; 
• poisoning and pollution through the secretion of pharmaceutical products, especially antibiotics and cytotoxic drugs
;• poisoning and contamination by sewage;• poisoning and contamination of the elements or toxic compounds, such as mercury or dioxins that are emitted during the incineration process
;Sharps waste

Is, each year, giving the nearly 16 billion injection in all parts of the world, but it does not get rid of all needles and syringes after use in appropriate ways, which creates a risk of injury and infection and opportunities for reuse
.• The WHO estimates that contaminated syringes caused, in 2000, in the incidence of infection 21 million hepatitis B, and two million infections of hepatitis virus C, and 260,000 infections of HIV in all parts of the world. And could prevent many of these injuries if the disposal of syringes safely. And reuse of syringes and needles for single use injection of common phenomena, in particular in some African and Asian countries and some countries in Central and Eastern Europe
.• There is, in developing countries, additional risks arising from waste collection to waste disposal sites and manual sorting of hazardous waste produced by health care institutions. Such practices are common in many parts of the world. Face Mnaulo waste, directly, the risk of needle stick and injuries caused by toxic or infectious materials

.Vaccine waste

Revealed the diagnosis, in June 2000, the injury of six children in light of smallpox (vaccinia virus) after that played Bompolat glass containing a vaccine for smallpox, and expired in a garbage dump in Vladivostok (Russia). In spite of the injuries were not dangerous to the point of threatening the lives of these children, should have been addressing those ampoules before it is put.Radioactive waste

Is the use of radioactive sources in the medical field and in other applications of the widespread phenomena in all parts of the world. It is noticeable, sometimes, public exposure to the radioactive waste resulting from radiation treatments and have not been disposed of in appropriate ways. Serious incidents have been documented in Brazil in 1988 (where he died four people and wounded 28 others seriously burned radiation) and in Mexico and Morocco in 1983 and in Algeria in 1978 and in Mexico in 1962.May be risks associated with other types of health-care waste, particularly waste of blood and chemicals, high risk but have not yet subject to full assessment. It must carry out further work in this area. It should, in the meantime, take the necessary precautionary measures
.Risks associated with the disposal of wasteAlthough the contribution of the health-care waste treatment and disposal in reducing the risks associated with them, there are indirect health risks may occur as a result of toxic pollutants produced by these processes in the environment
.• can cause landfills to pollute the drinking water if not built in appropriate ways. There are occupational hazards in the waste facilities in ways that were not designed well or those that are not operated or maintained as it should
.• We have been pursuing the process of waste incineration on a large scale, but is not appropriate incineration or incineration of materials unsuitable resulting in secretion of pollutants in the air and ash residues. And can result in the incineration of materials containing chlorine to the generation of dioxins and furans 2, one of the substances that cause cancer in humans and that have been detected on the relationship between them and a wide range of adverse health effects. It can also result in the incineration of heavy metals or materials that contain heavy metals (particularly lead, mercury and cadmium) to the spread of toxic metals in the environment. It is worth mentioning that the dioxins and furans and metals reigned and accumulate in the environment. And it should not be incineration of materials containing chlorine or minerals.• can not be only for modern incinerators running warmly ranging between 850 and 1100 ° C and equipped with special equipment to clean the gas to meet international standards for the emission of dioxins and furans.There are, currently, alternative means may be substituted for the incineration, such as sterilization, and the use of microwaves, and conciliation between the treatment of steam and internal mixing in the framework of an integrated process, and chemotherapy
.Waste Management - the reasons for failureThe most common problems associated with the waste of health care in the lack of awareness of health risks related to such waste, and lack of training in the field of waste management in appropriate ways, and the lack of waste management systems and disposal, and inadequate funding and human resources, and not to give high priority to this subject. Many countries do not have the appropriate regulations in this regard or that they owned or carried out. A key issue in this regard concern, clearly, to identify those entrusted with the responsibility of waste handling and disposal. This is the responsibility, according to the principle of "polluter who pays the cost of pollution," the responsibility of the body that produce waste, which is usually the concerned authority to provide health care services, or institution that participates in the activities related to this pollution. In order to reach the health-care waste management in safe and sustainable should include a financial analysis of all costs associated with waste disposal
.Steps should be taken to improve the situationSupport improvements in the management of healthcare waste on the following key elements:• Build a comprehensive system addresses the responsibilities and allocation of resources and waste handling and disposal, which represents a long-term process supported by incremental improvements;• Raise awareness of the risks related to waste, health care and safe and sound practices relevant;• adopt safe management options that take into account the environment in order to protect people from hazards in waste collection, handling, storage or transport, treatment or disposal.Governments need to demonstrate commitment and provide the necessary support so that improvements in global and long-term, though it can take immediate action at the local level
.WHO's response

The document guiding the comprehensive and the First World, a document entitled "waste management activities of health care means safe", which was issued for the first time the World Health Organization in 19993, aspects such as the regulatory framework, and planning issues, and waste reduction at the lowest level of recycling, and options for waste handling, storage, transport, treatment and disposal, and training
.The document is aimed at managers of hospitals and other health care institutions, and policy makers, and public health professionals, and managers involved in waste management. And attached to that document, "Teacher's Guide", which contains the necessary materials to conduct a workshop for three days for the same audience
.There, in addition to that, and guidance documents issued by the World Health Organization on health-care waste, including the following
:• a monitoring tool• a tool to estimate the costs• Rapid Assessment Tool• The policy paper• Guidelines for the development of national plans• waste management activities of the injection• waste management in primary health care centers• waste management activities of the mass immunization• Management of waste during the emergency.Can be found on the full texts of these publications on the website of the Department of Water, Sanitation and Health of the World Health Organization


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غير معرف في : 19 مارس 2012 3:40 م يقول...

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