Oil tankers for environmental health disaster










Temted environment as she watched the sinking of oil tanker accidents in the womb of water, such as spears of poison implanted in her body or Kmsamar ringing in her coffin! Only those causing leakage of up to two million tons of crude oil into the waters of seas and oceans, and comes what happened to the leakage of large amounts of oil in the vicinity of the northwest coast of Spain on November 19, 2002 Ekhalqh alarming episodes of series of oil spills from tankers cracked and sunken.


Broke in the Greek oil tanker "Prestige" in half because of a severe storm sank their impact in the Atlantic Ocean carrying 77 thousand tons of diesel oil to the bottom of the ocean, threatening to severely damage wildlife and fisheries, marine oil spill after the tanker, which carries the Spanish coast. Has flowed , according to news agencies, thousands of tons of oil from the tanker sank, contaminating more than 100 deaths beach and about 250 birds of 18 species, and the injury of marine life in Spain, a big danger, as well as to prevent fishing in the area of ​​more than 400 kilometers of coastline.


And threatens to spread leakage of diesel oil - of far more than 20 spot with a brown color and circular shape and density of large diameter of each of them, between the meter and four meters - the extinction of fish stocks and shellfish important to the local economy in a wide area off the coast of Spain as it depends where about 60% of the population on fishing as a major source of livelihood.

Has resulted in wind and bad weather to thwart the efforts of the Spanish authorities to prevent the oil slick towards the coast and inland province Jalician, and despite the enormous efforts made to clean the roads and facilities covered by a thick layer of oil expected destinations are responsible to take clean-up operations about three years, and that the region will not return to what it was in the past, before the passage of at least ten years!


Carriers .. Contaminated:

The oil tankers Bhawwadtha repeated and erroneous practices, Kelqa waste and waste oil in the water of pollutants to waters of the serious and the environment in general.

According to researcher Dr. "restricted life" in his study on the oil pollution of the water under the supervision of "the Environment Public Authority" in Libya, it is difficult to control oil pollution of marine or prevent its spread as it is the risk of floating and sliding controlled by wind direction and factors of the tides and the intensity of the waves and thus difficult to control it. Dr Mahgoub:

oil pollutants are the most dangerous pollutants coasts and seas and oceans and the most widespread, as 20% of the oil produced globally is extracted from the depths of the sea, so any of the following reasons lead to the oil-water pollution:


• maritime accidents and the most important of which collision of oil tankers, coral reefs, or to each other or sinking.

• incidents that occur during the drilling and exploration in the seas and oceans.

• leakage of oil into the sea during the loading and unloading operations of oil ports.

• fire, fires, oil tankers at sea.

• Crude oil leak due to corrosion incidents in the metal body of the tanker.

• take a water tanker after washing tanks discharged into the sea.


• Meet the so-called oil-contaminated water budget in the waters of the sea, where the tanker is filled after unloading its cargo of oil by at least 60% of their volume to maintain the balance or equilibrium carrier while walking on the sea during the return journey to the port of export.


• leakage of oil from oil tankers due to accidents from offshore oil wells adjacent to the beaches.

• leakage of oil into the sea during the war, as happened in the Second Gulf War.


Leaks .. Floating cancer:

Oil spills threaten marine organisms in general in the affected areas such as fish, turtles, birds, coral reefs and other districts of the seas and oceans. Where it is due to the escalation and the transcendence of a lot of vapors of various oil slick floating on the surface of water, the air currents push these vapors away from the place where oil pollution to residential areas on the beaches and coastal areas by the air becomes saturated to the high degree and high concentration above the acceptable which affects the marine ecosystems and wildlife. The petroleum oil contains many organic materials many of which are poisoned organisms, and the most dangerous compound benzopyrene these compounds (benzopyrene), a cancer-causing hydrocarbons and lead to the death of aquatic organisms.


On the other hand, because the density of oil is less than the density of water it floats on the surface of water forming a thin layer buffer between the water and the atmosphere, and this layer spread over a large area of ​​water surface, which prevents gas exchange between air and water do not occur solubility of oxygen in sea water, which affects the balance gas, oil class and prevent the arrival of light into aquatic hindering processes of photosynthesis, which is the main source of oxygen and self-purification of water, leading to the death of many marine organisms and the disruption of the food chain of living organisms.

Add to that the spilled oil caused the pollution of coastal beaches as a result of moving long distances with ocean currents and tides, and collects some of its parts in the form of small balls black impede the movement of boats and fishing nets and spoil the beauty of sandy beaches and damage seashells and coral reefs, affecting tourism in the those areas. The most stable compounds of oil moves through the food chain and stored in fat and liver of marine animals, and these have a long-term adverse effects do not appear on the human body only after several years.


Goodbye .. Of fish and mammals:


Studies show that the Persian Gulf is the most polluted seas in the world oil, and that the organisms in the Arabian Peninsula is threatened, there are approximately four species of mammals and 21 species of birds and 40 species of reptiles and three species of endangered fish altogether! Persian Gulf has witnessed a number of cases of oil spill is the largest and the worst in the world during the previous years, and represents the oil spilled from tankers 28% of the total oil spilled into the waters of Persian Gulf, which amounts to an average of about 140 thousand barrels per year.


As for the Mediterranean Sea, which is shared by many Arab countries, what amounts to a year of oil leaking to nearly 600 thousand million tons. Based on a recent report issued by the United Nations Environment Programme, the only 4% of the areas where shellfish grow (shellfish waters) in the Mediterranean Sea at the present time produces seafood unfit for human!


The report of the Third Global Environment Program of the United Nations had said earlier that the Earth stands on the crossroads, One quarter of mammals in the world and 12% of birds already facing threat of extinction, and the world's seas are already exposed to a real threat due to pollution, and a third of the global inventory of fish classified Now as Nailla or at risk!

Fight .. Oil:

The main mechanical methods to combat water pollution, oil, can be summarized as follows:

1. The use of floating barriers to oil slick fencing to prevent the spread of oil.

2. The use of absorbent materials that impede the movement of oil slick in part, such as glass wool, and mica, and sprinkle these materials from small boats is then collected by networks of minutes and transferred to where it can be disposed of either by burning in special furnaces, or is extracted from the oil in and reused again .


3. The use of suction by way of special equipment sucking oil spills such as vacuum cleaners, and so are able to separate the oil from the water.

4. The use of devices that scrape the thick layer of oil floating on the surface of the water, and oil is collected and withdrawn Almst using pumps.


5. Using devices conveyor belt that passes through the metal layer where the viscous oil stick oil belt and can be disposed of later.


And can control water pollution by the oil-solution using a biological bacteria, where he found some scientists that a number of microorganisms that can analyze the microstructure of oil products that can convert the oil slicks to the extremely fine droplets in water. Have used some of the oil companies and chemical laboratories specialized in some Western countries these microorganisms on a large scale in the treatment of oil spills in seas and oceans to oil spills from tankers.


There are chemical methods for the treatment of oil spill into the water where it is sprayed certain types of solvents, detergents or powders high density on the surface of oil spills at sea pollute the adhesion and transferred after the fragment into a kind of emulsion spreading in the water and dissolved in or deposited on the bottom. But this is apparently the solution treatment of the problem, because the arrival of those materials to the bottom of the sea causing the extermination of fish, snails, sand worms that live in them, so this method is the increase in the complexity of the pollution problem and not a final solution to it!



Source:
/theenvironment.maktoobblog

غير معرف في : 7 ديسمبر 2011 3:23 ص يقول...

thank you

غير معرف في : 7 ديسمبر 2011 3:23 ص يقول...

Must be maintained on the environment in order to live

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